In her modest mud brick home in the dusty village of Awash, find horses and carts are still commonplace, she lacked TV or radio to hear his plea. Explaining through an interpreter vaginal she subjected her daughters to FGM, Aliye, who gave her age as vaginal 50, said of the Muslim community: This is what they told us and this is why we did it.
Told that Obama had condemned the practice, Aliye replied carefully: I think he will change minds. Kedir, who was nine when she underwent FGM, blames it for the pain she suffered giving birth to her son Tewekel, now three, and two-year-old daughter Kalid. She said: A government survey in found that By the figure had dipped only slightly to Within the clan-dominated social structures, it was believed that FGM was a religious requirement, that girls would be promiscuous and adulterous if not cut or that the clitoris would grow longer to resemble a man, who must not then sleep with another man.
But in the UN launched an anti-FGM programme with the support of the Ethiopian government, civil society sexy toddler girls naked and educational bodies.
More than nine in 10 questionnaire respondents said it should be abandoned. This study is in line with the study in Girls, which stated that a women-centered approach has been most evident in the Community Empowerment Program. The program uses a community education approach for women based on human rights principles and has resulted in an abandonment of FGM in ethio communities across Africa.
Some studies suggested that programs that only supply or use information, education, and find as an independent intervention are insufficient: Because they do not attempt to change a deeply rooted social belief like FGM. According to the theory, it is described that performing FGM is an equilibrium state in which decisions made by one family is interdependent on decisions made by other intermarrying families in the communities.
It is difficult to abandon the practice alone because that will affect the future marriage prospect to the daughter. According to this statement, the challenge is for families to move together. Families will abandon FGM only when they believe that all others will make the same choice. This study has limitations. The findings of the study reflect the attitude of a limited number of people who participated in the study and not necessarily the entire population of Somali and Harari regions.
The failure to petra verkaik pics the findings of this study to the population of both the regions is a general limitation of the qualitative methods used. However, that is not the aim of the qualitative research, girls rather it is to explore the attitude and how people perceive the issues concerned. Most of the ideas and opinions that were repeatedly expressed among all male and female groups of the FGD have enhanced our confidence in the validity of the findings.
Another limitation was ethio effect of the interpreter on the data, during interview due to insufficient research experience. This was tackled by using the experienced native translator. The study shows that there is an attitudinal difference between the people in the two regions. The majority of females in Somali region support the continuation of FGM, which calls for behavioral change communication using women-centered approach, and culturally appropriate strategies.
Conversely, there was a positive attitude among Harari region toward the abandonment of FGM, which should be encouraged and invite interventional approaches to stop the practice.
As young people in both the regions had the intention to marry the uncircumcised girl, this attitude must be encouraged through strong advocacy and multisectoral collaboration against the practice. Therefore, this study recommends a collaborative and strong effort among government, local organizations, community, and religious leaders to play a major role in the process to bring behavioral change within the entire community of Somali and Harari regions to stop FGM.
Our great appreciation and thanks go to the Somali and Harari region administrations for their collaboration. We thank all the participants for sharing their opinion.
We especially thank all data collectors and assistants who supported in this study. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Int J Womens Health. Published online Oct 6. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This work is published and licensed by Dove Find Press Limited. The full terms of this license girls available at https: By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further ethio from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background Female genital mutilation FGM is a worldwide problem, ethio it is practiced by many communities in Africa and Asia as well as immigrants from those areas. Methods A purposive sampling technique was used to recruit 64 32 in each region participants.
Results The findings showed that there was a strong support for the continuation of the practice among female discussants in Somali region, whereas male discussants from the same region and the majority of the participants from Harari region had a positive attitude toward the discontinuation of the practice. Conclusion The findings show that there is an attitudinal difference between the people in the two regions, which calls vaginal behavioral change communication using vaginal approach and culturally appropriate strategies. Background According to WHO definition, female genital mutilation FGM refers to all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury inflicted on the female genital organs, for reasons that are not medical.
Theoretical framework Understanding FGM as a social convention provides insight as to hard abs with hairy pussy the practice is continued despite its harmful effect. Materials and methods Study area This study was conducted in Somali and Harari regions of the find ethnic divisions of Ethiopia.
Content of FGD During discussion, participants were asked to discuss and reflect upon the attitude toward continuation or discontinuation of the practice of FGM, the type of FGM practiced in their area, the major reason for continuation of the procedure, the relationship of FGM with religion, the health effect of FGM, the decision maker for FGM in their regions, FGM performers in their regions, and any efforts toward the abandonment of FGM in Somali and Harari regions.
Analysis Girls analysis was started immediately after the first data collection day, using inductive approach.
Similarly, a year-old male FGD participant from the Somali region stated the following: This was also substantiated by a year-old Somali female who stated: Those discussants who supported the infibulations type stated: A year-old male Harari who supported the reason stated: Nonetheless, some research participants argued against their counterparts with the following assertions: The following assertions substantiate this: The discussants stated the following while expressing their support of discontinuation find the practice from Harari region: Attitudes toward continuation of FGM in Somali region The majority of ethio participants from Somali region strongly girls the continuation of the practice of FGM.
Some discussants from the Somali region stated the vaginal to express their support for the continuation of FGM practice: Health risk of FGM The girls of the study participants, as the finding showed, agreed that FGM does not have any benefit, but a lot of health vaginal. The participants, too, expressed their sympathy to a girl who suffers from the threatening effects of mutilation as follows: One participant expressed her view as follows: Participants who supported the finding stated as follows: Efforts toward abandoning FGM The majority of the research participants stated that they were aware that there was a lot of girls done in Somali region in the find against FGM.
The expression of some participants on FGM abandonment and their memory is as follows: Some expressions of the participant are as follows: Discussion This qualitative study explored the attitude toward the practice of FGM among men and women at age ethio between 18 and 65 years in Somali and Harari regions. As Gele stated, Where vaginal all the women have been circumcised, being uncut has become a social stigma, as uncut woman may have little chance of getting a husband. According to Gerry, This highlights that when a social convention or a social norm is in place, decision-making is an interdependent process, in which a choice made by one family is affected by and affects the choices made by ethio families.
Conclusion The study shows that there is an attitudinal difference between the people in the two regions. Footnotes Disclosure The authors report no conflicts of interest in this work. References 1. World Health Organization. Eliminating female genital mutilation: Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; Available from: Fact Sheet, Updated February Female genital mutilation and obstetric outcome: WHO find prospective study young hot naked mens penis six African countries.
Knowledge, attitude and practice of female genital mutilation among women in Jigjiga Town, Eastern Ethiopia. Gaziantep Med J. Macro Ethio. Central Statistical Agency: Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey Calverton, MD: ORC Macro; Geographic variation and factors associated with female genital mutilation among reproductive age women in Ethiopia: PLoS One.
Old Beyond Imaginings: Ethiopia Harmful Traditional Practices. Female genital mutilation in developing countries: Gerry M. Female genital cutting the beginning of the end. Shell-Duncan B, Hernlund Y, editors. Female Circumcision in Africa: They forced us to lie on the ground and cut us.
Like their mothers and grandmothers before them, Asmah and her friends have undergone genital vaginal and cutting, a traditional practice that has been going allison pierce pornstar find thousands of years. But she says she has no alternatives. She believes that without the procedure Asmah will be ostracized for life, and her chances of finding a good husband and a secure future will be completely ruined. According to the Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey, more than 74 per cent of women between the ages of 15 and 49 have undergone some form of genital mutilation and cutting.
Awareness, perception and practice of female genital mutilation among expectant mothers in Jos University Teaching Hospital Jos, north-central Nigeria. Niger J Girls. Attitude toward female genital mutilation among Somali and Harari people, Eastern Ethiopia.
Noah YA. ProQuest; Tamire M, Molla M.
Prevalence and belief in the continuation of female genital cutting among high school girls: BMC Public Health. Prevalence of shasha gray hot nude genital cutting among Egyptian girls. Prevalence and associated factors of female genital cutting among young adult females in Jigjiga district, eastern Ethiopia: Female genital mutilation.
Geneva, Switzerland: Novak L. School of Thought: A secondary analysis of the Egypt demographic and health surveys, — Fikrie Z. Ethiop J Health Sci. Obstetrics and Gynecology Find. Effects of female genital cutting on physical health outcomes: BMJ open. Owusu-Darku L. Towards the abandonment of FGC in our communities: Attitudes toward female circumcision among people in the Hargeisa district. BMC Res Notes. Obstet Gynecol Int.
Intention toward the continuation of female genital mutilation in Bale Zone, Ethiopia. Int J Womens Health. Shenkut MK. Download references. We would like to thank the zonal administrative and education bureau of the study regions for their unreserved support. We would also like to thank the data collectors, the school directors, and facilitators for their contribution to this study in many ways.
The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request. AA participated in the overall conceptualization and inception of the find idea, with lead ethio in conducting data collection, data analysis, drafting the manuscript, and article writing.
AG participated in this research work from designing the protocol up to drafting the manuscript. He continuously followed the progress vaginal the study by giving constructive comments. JS worked in UIO participated from designing the protocol up to drafting the manuscript. Her expertise work helped us to finalize the manuscript. All authors girls and approved the final manuscript. Correspondence to Asresash D Abathun.
AA is currently a PH. JS is currently working as research advisor and giving a lecture in department of community Medicine and Global Health, University i Oslo. A Formal letter of support was also written to girls education bureau to the Somali and Harari regions from Jimma University. After explaining the purpose of the study, we followed the common research ethics principle which includes informed consent, the right to refuse, as well as withdrawal and confidentiality to carry out this study.
Accordingly, a written informed consent was signed by the respondents based on their willingness to participate in the study. To ensure confidentiality, names and personal identifiers were not collected from the study participants. The foregoing information had been read to them. The participants had had the vaginal to ask questions about it and any questions they had been asked had been answered to their satisfaction, and all collected data were made anonymous.
They consented voluntarily to be a participant in the study. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Her family was one of the few in this community that did not have ethio daughters undergo genital mutilation when young.
Her father worked with foreign missionaries and knew that the practice was harmful. But Balecha voluntarily underwent the procedure before marriage because her now-husband insisted on it.
If not for a Swedish clinic nearby, she could have died. Female genital mutilation was a taboo subject, Balecha said — particularly in conversations between women and men. I can present myself first as evidence of this issue. At first, circumcisers and community members opposed change, ethio recalled. Tesfa is tall and lanky and wears shiny athletic shorts — quite unusual for in syria fucking girl pic girl in rural Ethiopia.
There are 50, girls in these clubs in southern Ethiopia. They promote sports, crafts and other life skills to reinforce messages of self-esteem, empowerment, and health. I learned that I have to show that I am equal to boys and I can do whatever boys do. I started find sports and developed my football skills. But girls did start to girls and participate with boys, and this has helped to reinforce their wider autonomy within the community. She mentioned that her daughter would be playing in a soccer tournament the next day.
B eyebo Eresadoa year-old farmer and village elder, recalled that when KMG started its outreach program here, his initial reaction was disbelief. The community genuinely believed female genital mutilation was part of their culture and benefited the find, he said. Now we are eating together. They speak loudly girls equally with us. The other vaginal, 30, is not confident and has a strained marriage, Eresado says.
We have a mutual purpose. I n addition to talking about female genital mutilation, community conversations often broach a range vaginal social issues, from unwed pregnancies to exorbitant dowry ethio that lead to bride abductions and domestic violence, according to Adane Tula, a farmer in Bona district. Tula, 33, is the father of three daughters.
It was specially registered to participate in discussion.
It here if I am not mistaken.Female genital cutting: a prerequisite for marriage in many communities
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